Punjab (Shahmukhi: پنجاب: Template:Audio) is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 56% of the country's total population. The neighbouring areas are Azad Kashmir (Pakistan) and Jammu and Kashmir (India) to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the south, the province of Balochistan to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory to the north. The Punjab is home to the Punjabis and various other groups. The main languages are Punjabi and Saraiki and the dialects of Mewati and Potowari. The name Punjab derives from the Persian words Panj (پنج) (Five), and Āb (آب) (Water), i.e. (the) Five Waters - referring to the Indus River and its four primary tributaries of Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej, that flow through Punjab.
Punjab is the most developed, most populous, and most prosperous province of Pakistan. Lahore has been the capital of Punjab for a thousand years; it is Punjab's main cultural, historical, administrative and economic center. Punjab has been the gateway of the Indian subcontinent for the invaders from Greece, Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan. Due to its stategic location, Punjab has been part of various empires and dynasties throughout history, including the Indus Valley Civilization, Aryans, Kushans, Scythians, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Afghans, Sikhs and the British.
The Greeks referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers. In Avesta, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient hapta həndu or Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers. The British used to call Punjab "Our Prussia."
The word Punjab is a combination of the Indo-Iranian words panj (five) and āb (water), thus the (land of) five rivers. The five rivers are the Sindhu, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej. Sometimes, in English, there can be a definite article before the name i.e. the Punjab. The name is also sometimes spelt as Panjab or Panjaab or Punjaab. From the Himalayas they all end up in the down-stream of Panjnad, eventually to the Arabian Sea.
Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province at Template:Convert/km2 after Balochistan and is located at the northwestern edge of the geologic Indian plate in South Asia. The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. Other important cities include Multan, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Jhelum and Rawalpindi. Undivided punjab is home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistani Punjab. From west to east, these are: the Indus, Jhelum, Beas, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. Nearly 60% of Pakistan's population lives in the Punjab. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad.This geographical position and a large multi-ethnic population strongly influence Punjab's outlook on National affairs and induces in Punjab a keen awareness of the problems of the Pakistan's other important provinces and territories. In the acronym P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N, the P is for PUNJAB.
The province is a mainly a fertile region along the river valleys, while sparse deserts can be found near the border with Rajasthan and the Sulaiman Range. The region contains the Thar and Cholistan deserts. The Indus River and its many tributaries traverse the Punjab from north to south.
The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well.
Most areas in Punjab experience fairly cool winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.
The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46°C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51°C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54°C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.
Recently the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years. Experts are suggesting that this is due to global climate change.
Punjab region temperature range from -2° to 40°C (MIN/MAX), but can reach 47°C (117°F) in summer and can touch down to -5°C in winter.
Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons as under:
- Hot weather (April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110F.
- Rainy season (July to September). Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cms sub-mountain region and 46 cms in the plains.
- Cold weather (October to March). Temperature goes down as low as 40F.
Demographics and society
The population of the province is estimated to be 81,330,531 in 2010 and is home to over half the population of Pakistan. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi (which is written in a Shahmukhi script in Pakistan) and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in country. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab. The language is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at National level. Punjabis themselves are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribes, clans (Qaum (Urdu: قوم )) and communities. In Pakistani Punjab these Qaums have more to do with traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans as opposed to rigid social stratifications.
The biradari, which literally means brotherhood is an important unit of Punjabi society, and includes people claiming descent from a common ancestor. The biradaris collectively form larger units known as quoms or tribes. Historically, these quoms were endogamous, but latterly, especially in the large cities, there is considerable intermarriage between members of different quoms, and differences are getting blurred. Important quoms within the Punjab include Aheers, Arains, Awans, Dogars, Gakhars, Gujjars, Jats, Kambohs, Khokhars, Mughals, Rajputs, Sheikhs and Syeds. Other smaller tribes are the Rawns, Maliks, Khetran, and Rehmanis (Muslim Labana)
In addition to the Punjabis, the province is also home to other smaller ethnic groups in the province include the Siraiki, Hindkowan, Kashmiris, Sindhis, Pashtuns, Balochs and Muhajirs. The Muhajirs are Urdu speaking Muslim migrants from India and settled in Pakistan after independence in 1947. Three decades of bloodshed in neighbouring Afghanistan have also brought a large number of Afghan refugees (Tajik, Hazara and Turkmen) to the province.
As per the census of Pakistan 1998, linguistic distribution of the Punjab province is: Punjabi (75.23%), Saraiki (17.36%), Urdu (4.51%), Pashto (1.16%), Balochi (0.66%), Sindhi (0.13%) others (0.95%). The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is estimated to be between 97.21% Muslim with a Sunni Hanafi majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31% of the poulation. The Other minorites include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis and Bahá'í.
The dialects spoken in different regions of the land have a common vocabulary and a shared heritage. The people of Punjab have also a shared spiritual experience, which has been disseminated by Tasawwaf and can be witnessed on the occasion of the remembrance-fairs held on the Urs of Sufi Saints.
Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. Punjab was the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years old. The main site of the Indus Valley Civilization in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilization. The arrival of the Indo-Aryans led to the flourishing of the Vedic civilization along the length of the Indus River. This civilization shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia and Afghanistan. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts have nevertheless been found. Punjab was part of the great ancient empires including the Gandhara Mahajanapadas, Mauryas, Kushans and Hindu Shahi. Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan and Lahore) grew in wealth. The Aryans invaded Punjab between 1500 B.C. and 500 B.C.; they called Punjab Arya-Varta, or the land of Arya. The Rig Vedas are also supposed to have been written in Punjab.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from the west. Invaded by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks, and Afghans, Punjab witnessed centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its legacy is a unique culture that combines Zorastrian, Hindu, Buddhist, Persian, Central Asian, Islamic, Afghan, Sikh, and British elements. The city of Taxila, founded by son of Taksh the son Bharat who was the brother of Ram. It was reputed to house the oldest university in the world, Takshashila University, one of the teachers was the great Vedic thinker and politician Chanakya. Taxila was a great centre of learning and intellectual discussion during the Maurya Empire. It is a UN World Heritage site, valued for its archaeological and religious history.
Greeks, Central Asians, and Persians
Unique to Pakistani Punjab was that this area was repeatedly conquered into various Persian, Central Asian, and Greek empires, such as those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan. Having conquered Drangiana, Arachosia, Gedrosia and Seistan in ten days, Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush and was thus fully informed of the magnificence of the country and its riches in gold, gems and pearls. However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains. Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii, mountaineers, who offered vigorous resistance but were subdued. Alexander then marched through Ghazni, blockaded Magassa, and then marched to Ora and Bazira. Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa was situated. A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan, who were very skillful in war. Alexander invested heavy troops; eventually seventeen thousand Cathians fell in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. Alexander left Punjab in 326 B.C. and took his army to Persia and Susa.
Of particular importance were the periods of contact between Punjab and various Persian Empires when the region either became a part of the empire itself, or was an autonomous region which paid taxes to the Persian king. In later centuries, when Persian was the language of the Mughal government, Persian architecture, poetry, art and music were an integral part of the region's culture. The official language of Punjab remained Persian until the arrival of the British in the mid-19th century, when the administrative language was changed to English. After 1947, Urdu, which has Persian and Sanskrit roots, became Pakistan's national language (Qaumi Zubaan).
Arrival of Islam
The Punjabis followed a diverse plethora of faiths, mainly comprising Hindus but with large minorities of Buddhists and Zoroastrians when the Umayyad Muslim Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Punjab and Sindh in 712. During the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the province became an important centre and Lahore was made into a second capital of the Ghaznavid Empire based out of Afghanistan.
The Mughals controlled the region from 1524 until 1739 and would also lavish the province with building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi Mosque, both situated in Lahore. Muslim soldiers, traders, architects, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and some may have settled in the Punjab. Following the decline of the Mughals, the Shah of Iran and founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Nader Shah crossed the Indus and sacked the province in 1739. Later, the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani, incidentally born in Panjab, in the city of Multan made the Punjab a part of his Durrani Empire lasting until 1762.
The founder of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun (Afghan), was born on the outskirts of Multan, souther Panjab where many of his descendants live to this day. After cementing his authority over various Afghan tribes, he went about to establish the first united Afghan Kingdom (Greater Afghanistan) that during its greatest extent included modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northeastern Iran. The Punjab was a cultural reservoir for the Afghans, and many where attracted to its lush fertile lands, a process that continues to this very day. It has been said that with the loss of the breadbasket regions of the Punjab and Sindh, Afghanistan has never been able to achieve a stable state ever since. Many ethnic Afghan or Pashtun tribes have made Pakistan's Punjab their home over the centuries. These tribes include the Khugyanis known as Khakwanis, Alizais, Tareens, Durranis, Mullazais, Niazis, Khattaks, yousafzais, sadozais, tahirkheli, utmanzais, bangash, mashwani, Lodhis, Kakars, Kakazais, and Barakzais, to name a few.
At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the religion of Sikhism was born, and during the Mughal period gradually emerged as a formidable military force until subjugated and assimilated by the later rising and expanding Sikh Empire. After fighting Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Sikhs wrested control of the Punjab from his descendants and ruled in a confederacy, which later became the Sikh Empire of the Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. A denizen of the city of Gujranwala, the capital of Ranjit Singh's empire was Lahore.
The Maharaja's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. Relationships with neighbouring British territories then broke down, starting the First Anglo-Sikh War; this led to a British official being resident in Lahore and the annexation of territory south of the Satluj to British India.
Some parts of Pakistani Punjab also served as the centre of resistance in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Sikhs were the first people of the Punjab to rule their own land since Prithviraj Chauhan's defeat.
Independence and its aftermath
In 1947 the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western Punjab was assimilated into new country of Pakistan while the east Punjab stayed in India. This led to massive rioting as both sides committed atrocities against fleeing refugees.
At the time of independence in 1947 and due to the ensuing horrendous exchange of populations, the Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus migrated to India. Punjabi Muslims were uprooted similarly from their homes in East Punjab which now forms part of India. Approximately 7 million plus who moved to Pakistan, over 6 million settled in Punjab.
Agriculture continues to be the largest sector of Punjab's economy. The province is the breadbasket of the country as well as home to the largest ethnic group in Pakistan, the Punjabis. Unlike neighbouring India, there was no large-scale redistribution of agricultural land. As a result most rural areas are dominated by a small set of feudalistic land-owning families.
In the 1950s there was tension between the eastern and western halves of Pakistan. In order to address the situation, a new formula resulted in the abolition of the province status for Punjab in 1955. It was merged into a single province West Pakistan. In 1972, after East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh, Punjab again became a province.
Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Since the 1990s Punjab hosted several key sites of Pakistan's nuclear program such as Kahuta. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. The peace process between India and Pakistan, which began in earnest in 2004, has helped pacify the situation. Trade and people-to-people contacts through the Wagah border are now starting to become common. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib.
Starting in the 1980s large numbers of Punjabis migrated to the Middle East, Britain, Spain, Canada and the United States for economic opportunities. Business and cultural ties between the United States and Punjab are growing.
Punjab has always contributed the most to the national economy of Pakistan. Punjab's economy has quadrupled since 1972. Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7% in 2000 and 59% as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the Service & Agriculture sectors of the Pakistan Economy. With its contribution ranging from 52.1% to 64.5% in the Service Sector and 56.1% to 61.5% in the Agriculture Sector. It is also major manpower contributor because it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (Technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the Manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions raging from a low of 44% to a high of 52.6%. In 2007, Punjab achieved a growth rate of 7.8% and during the period 2002-03 to 2007-08, its economy grew at a rate of between 7% to 8% per year. and during 2008-09 grew at 6% against the total GDP growth of Pakistan at 4%.
Despite lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, Heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, Cement, Vehicles, Auto Parts, I.T, metals, Sugar mill plants, Cement Plants, Agriculture Machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.
Despite its dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo. Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting.
Punjab contributes about 76% to annual food grain production in the country. 51 million acres (210,000 km2) is cultivated and another 9.05 million acres (36,600 km2) are lying as cultivable waste in different parts of the province.
Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.
Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. The small and cottage industries are in abundance. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 7,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries.
Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.
Punjab is also a mineral rich province with extensive mineral deposits of Coal, Gas, Petrol, Rock salt (with the second largest salt mine in the world), Dolomite, gypsum, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundreds economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.
This is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998.
|BA, BSc... degrees||110,491||96,144||206,635||4.12|
|MA, MSc... degrees||1,226,914||764,094||1,991,008||3.84|
- Comsats Institute Of information and technology, Lahore
- Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore
- Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
- Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi
- Government College University, Lahore
- Government College University, Faisalabad
- The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur
- Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore
- King Edward Medical College, Lahore
- Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
- Lahore College for Women University, Jhang campus
- Cadet College Hassanabdal, Pakistan
- National College of Arts, Lahore
- National Textile University, Faisalabad
- University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
- University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi
- University of Education, Lahore
- University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Faisalabad
- University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila
- University of Health Sciences, Lahore
- University of Gujrat, Gujrat
- University of the Punjab, Lahore, Gujranwala
- University of Sargodha, Sargodha
- University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
- Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore
- Comsats Institue of Information and Technology, Lahore
- Hajvery University, Lahore
- Beaconhouse National University, Lahore
- Forman Christian College, Lahore
- GIFT University, Gujranwala
- Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore
- Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pak-AIMS, Lahore
- Lahore School of Economics, Lahore
- Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore
- Minhaj International University, Lahore
- Munawwar-ul-Islam Institute of Research, Gujrat
- National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore
- University of Management and Technology, Lahore
- University of Central Punjab, Lahore
- University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad
- University of Lahore, Lahore
- University of South Asia, Lahore
- Superior University, Lahore
- University of Munawwar-Ul-Islam, Gujrat
- International Islamic University, Bahawalpur
- University College Lahore, Lahore
- National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Lahore
- CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore
- University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 8000 years ago. Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts. The ancient Hindu Katasraj temple and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair.
The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Koran decorate mosques and mausoleums in Punjab. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world.
Fairs and festivals
The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints. The Sufi saints spread Islam and preached and lived the Muslim way of life. People have festivities to commemorate these traditions. The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. These mainly fall in following categories:
Religious and seasonal fairs/festivals
Religious fairs are held on special days of Islamic significance like Eid ul-Adha, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, Ashura, Laylat al-Qadr and Jumu'ah-tul-Wida. The main activities on these special occasions are confined to congregational prayers and rituals. Melas are also held to mark these occasions.
Devotional fairs or Urs
The fairs held at the shrines of Sufi saints are called urs. They generally mark the death anniversary of the saint. On these occasions devotees assemble in large numbers and pay homage to the memory of the saint. Soul inspiring music is played and devotees dance in ecstasy. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. It forms a part of the folk music through mystic messages. The most important urs are: urs of Data Ganj Buksh at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Sultan Bahu at Jhang, urs of Hazrat Shah Jewna at Jhang ,urs of Hazrat Mian Mir at Lahore, urs of Baba Farid Ganj Shakar at Pakpattan, urs of Hazrat Bahaudin Zakria at Multan, urs of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan at Dera Ghazi Khan, urs of Shah Hussain at Lahore, urs of Hazrat Bulleh Shah at Kasur, urs of Hazrat Imam Bari (Bari Shah Latif) at Rawalpindi-Islamabad and urs of Shah Inayar Qadri (the murrshad of Bulleh Shah) in Lahore.
A big fair/mela is organized at Jandiala Sher Khan in district Sheikhupura on the Mausoleum of Syed Waris Shah who is the most loved Sufi poet of Punjab due to his claasic work known as Heer Ranjha. The shrine of Heer Ranjha in Jhang has been one of the most visited shrines in Punjab.
Industrial and commercial fairs
Exhibitions and Annual Horse Shows in all Districts and National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore are held with the official patronage. National Horse and Cattle Show at Lahore is the biggest festival where sports, exhibitions, and livestock competitions are held. It not only encourages and patronizes agricultural products and livestock through the exhibitions of agricultural products and cattle but is also a colourful documentary on the rich cultural heritage of the Province with its strong rural roots.
Arts and crafts
The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts that flourished in the urban centres particularly in Lahore. The former include cotton textiles, basketry, embroidery etc. while the latter are tile and woodwork skills, ivory, silver and gold work, naqqashi and architectural crafts.
Hand knotted carpets of fine quality are made in Punjab since the Mughal period. Emperor Akbar in the 15th century established the first factory in Lahore. While carpets were made for the wealthy, rough rugs (known as namdas) were made by the common people for their own use. Lahore is the centre of hand-made carpets.
Since ancient times the weavers of the region have produced colourful fabrics of silk and cotton. The hand-woven cotton cloth like khaddar of Kamalia, are popular. The cloth woven on handlooms is either block printed or beautifully embroidered. Multan is famous for beautiful hand-woven bed covers.
The province is home to many well known historical sites including the Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, Rohtas Fort and the ruins of the ancient city of Harrapa. The Anarkali Market and Jahangir's Tomb are prominent in the city of Lahore as is the Lahore Museum, while the ancient city of Taxila in the northwest was once a major centre of Buddhist and Hellenic influence. Many important Sikh shrines are in the Pakistani portion of Punjab, including the birthplace of the first Guru: Guru Nanak (born at Nankana Sahib). There is also the largest salt mine in Asia situated the Khewra Salt Mines.
Classical music forms are an important part of the cultural wealth of the Punjab. The Muslim musicians have contributed a large number of ragas to the repository of classical music. The most common instruments used are the Tabla and Harmonium.
Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Sultan Bahu, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Baksh, and Waris Shah and folk singers like Inayat Hussain Bhatti and Tufail Niazi, Alam Lohar, Sain Marna, Mansoor Malangi, Allah Ditta Lona wala, Talib Hussain Dard, Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Gamoo Tahliwala, Mamzoo Gha-lla, Akbar Jat, Arif Lohar, Ahmad Nawaz Cheena and Hamid Ali Bela are well-known. In the composition of classical ragas, there are such masters as Malika-i-Mauseequi (Queen of Music) Roshan Ara Begum, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan. Alam Lohar has made significant contributions to folklore and Punjabi literature, by being a very influential Punjabi folk singer from 1930 until 1979.
For the popular taste however, light music, particularly Ghazals and folk songs, which have an appeal of their own, the names of Mehdi Hasan, Ghulam Ali, Nur Jehan, Malika Pukhraj, Farida Khanum, Roshen Ara Begum, and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are well-known. Folk songs and dances of the Punjab reflect a wide range of moods: the rains, sowing and harvesting seasons. Luddi, Bhangra and Sammi depict the joy of living. Love legends of Heer Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, Sohni Mahenwal and Saiful Mulk are sung in different styles.
The folk heritage of the Punjab is the traditional urge of thousands of years of its history. While Urdu is the official language of the province, there are a number of local dialects through which the people communicate. These include Majhi, Jhangochi , Pothohari, Saraiki, Jatki, Hindko, Chhachhi, Doabi, and Derewali. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.
There are a number of folk tales that are popular in different parts of the Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti, and Sassi Punnun. The mystic folk songs include the Kafees of Khwaja Farid in Saraiki, Punjabi and the Shalooks by Baba Farid. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra, and Jugni.
One social/educational issue is the status of Punjabi language. According to Dr. Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab. Only a few monthly literary magazines constitute Punjabi press in Pakistan". Many have called for the Punjabi language to be given recognition as it has in India.
Punjabis are prominent in business, agriculture, industry, government, and the military to the point that there is resentment from other ethnic groups. The smaller provinces often voice concern at Punjabi domination of key institutions such as the Army. A newer generation of upper class Panjabis is re-affirming their maternal language and have begun requesting the government for official patronage not just of their languages (Punjabi,Potohari and Seraiki) but those of other major ethnic groups in Pakistan such as the Pashtuns and Balochi .
- Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal, lawyer, poet, philosopher
- Imran Khan, Cricketer, Politician, Charity worker
- Ibn-e-Insha, poet, writer (travelogues, humor)
- Malik Allahyar Khan (1927–2007), former member of parliament
- Colonel Muhammad Khan, writer, columnist, military education specialist
- Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, former President of Pakistan
- Qudrat Ullah Shahab, writer, bureaucrat
- Jamshed Dasti, currently a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan
- Shah Hussain, Sufi saint (1538–1599)
- Ajaz Akhtar, cricketer
- Shoaib Akhtar, cricketer
- Abdul Razzaq, cricketer
- Wasim Akram, cricketer and sports presenter
- Waris Shah, Sufi poet, mystic philosopher
- Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan, landowner, agriculturalist, philanthropist, civil engineer
- Nisar Ali Khan, politician of PML(N)
- Faiz Ahmed Faiz, poet
- Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, politician PML(Q)
- Air Marshal Nur Khan
- Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed NH (1910–July 27, 1948), 6/8 Punjab
- Major Muhammad Tufail Shaheed NH (1914–August 7, 1958), 1 Battalion East Pakistan Rifles
- Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed NH (1928–September 10, 1965), 17 Punjab
- Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed NH (1938–1971), 4 FF
- Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed NH (1943–December 6, 1971), 6 FF
- Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed NH (1949–December 10, 1971), 20 Lancers
- Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed NH (1944–December 17, 1971)
- A. R. Hye, architect
- Alam Lohar, folk singer
- Arif Lohar, folk singer
- Abdul Kardar, cricketer
- Abdus Salam, physicist and Nobel Prize winner
- Inzamam-ul-Haq, cricketer
- Imran Khan, cricketer, politician and philanthropist
- Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, politician
- Zulfiqar Ali Khosa, President of Pakistan Muslim League (N) Punjab
- Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, singer, musician
- Mian Mir, saint revered by Sikhs and Muslims
- Sultan Rahi, actor
- Rangeela, actor, comedian
- Nawaz Sharif, ex Prime Minister, major opposition leader
- Shahbaz Sharif, Chief Minister of Punjab province
- Waqar Younis, cricketer and sports presenter
- Javed Hashmi, politician PML(N)
- Shah Mehmood Qureshi, politician PPP
- Mirza Aziz Akbar Baig, former Vice Chairman of Pakistan Bar Council
- Ishaq Khan Khakwani, politician
- Salman Butt, cricketer
- Shoaib Malik, cricketer
- Ahsan Iqbal, politician PML(N)
- Khawaja Muhammad Asif, politician PML(N)
- Atif Aslam, singer
- Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal
- Yousaf Raza Gillani, currently Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Noor Jehan, singer, actor
- Shahnaz Sheikh, hockey player
- Samiullah, hockey player
- Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, former President of Pakistan
- Shaheed Bhagat Singh, revolutionary (1907–1931)
- General Zia-ul-Haq, former Army Chief of Staff and former military dictator (1977–1988)
- Manmohan Singh, current Prime Minister of India
- Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar Khan, former Chairman Parliamentary Special Committee on Kashmir
- Tahir-ul-Qadri, scholar, politician, orator
Jungle in Punjab.JPG
Jungle in Punjab
Faisalabad Clock Tower, built during the British Raj
Clk Towe Slk.jpg
Sialkot Clock Tower, more than a century old historical landmark
Shalamar Garden July 14 2005-Sideview of marble enclosure on the second level.jpg
The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore
Mosque in Jhelum Cantonment Pakistan.jpg
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila Pakistan juillet 2004.jpg
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
GCU Tower P1140896.jpg
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Major Akram Memorial.jpg
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Murray College Sialkot.jpg
Murray College Sialkot, established in 1889
Noor palace bwp.jpg
Noor Mahal, Bahawalpur
Clay pots in punjab pakistan-2.jpg
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
- Butter village
- Punjab Bar Council
- Malik Allahyar Khan
- Bharot Sharif
- Anjuman Muzareen Punjab
- Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Pakistan
- History of the Punjab
- Punjab region
- Punjab, India
- Punjabi people
- Punjabi culture
- Kotli Loharan West
- jhelum, Pakistan
- ↑ Government of the Punjab.
- ↑ http://www.uh.edu/~sriaz/thecountry/languages/index.html
- ↑ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/pakistan/2010/pakistan-100615-rferl01.htm
- ↑ http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-News/NWELayout&cid=1239889006387
- ↑ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/cantt-lahore.htm
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/india/xwpunjab.html
- ↑ http://tajikam.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=54&Itemid=36
- ↑ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. London; New York: Routledge, 3.
- ↑ How to obtain a police certificate - India. Cic.gc.ca (2009-11-09). Retrieved on 2010-07-18.
- ↑ Mercury drops to freezing point - Dawn Pakistan.
- ↑ http://punjabgovt.nic.in/punjabataglance/SomeFacts.htm
- ↑ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/pop_by_province/pop_by_province.html_Pages/statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/pop_by_province/pop_by_province
- ↑ 13.0 13.1
- ↑ Muslim peoples: a world ethnographic survey / Richard V. Weekes, editor-in-chief Greenwood Press 1978
- ↑ Punjabi Muslalman by J M Wikely
- ↑ POPULATION CY RELIGION
- ↑ http://books.google.co.in/books?ei=uG2RTb3xCYXQcZeeuUA&ct=result&id=0bkMAAAAIAAJ&dq=abhira+yadav&q=abhiras
- ↑ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ..., Volume 1, Part 1-page-11
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 http://www.whereincity.com/india/punjab/punjab-history.php
- ↑ Sikh Period - Government of Pakistan.
- ↑ The Punjab in 1920s – A Case study of Muslims, Zarina Salamat, Royal Book Company, Karachi, 1997. table 45, pp. 136. ISBN 969-407-230-1
- ↑ Panel 33 European Association for South Asian Studies
- ↑ Pakistan: a modern history, Ian Talbot, St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-21606-8
- ↑ Government of Punjab - Districts.
- ↑ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PAKISTANEXTN/Resources/293051-1241610364594/6097548-1257441952102/balochistaneconomicreportvol2.pdf
- ↑ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000.
- ↑ http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=152370
- ↑ http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/in-paper-magazine/economic-and-business/micro-credit,-income-distribution,-poverty-789 - Last Paragraph
- ↑ Punjab Gateway.
- ↑ http://www.findpk.com/yp/Biz_Guide/html/industrial_zones_punjab.html
- ↑ http://www.spdc.org.pk/pubs/rr/rr73.pdf
- ↑ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001459/145959e.pdf
- ↑ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/publications/lfs2007_08/results.pdf
- ↑ http://www.miir-pk.page.tl
- ↑ http://www.umi-pk.com
- ↑ http://www.nu.edu.pk
- ↑ http://www.lohrifestival.org/harvest-festival-of-punjab.html
- ↑ http://www.punjabilok.com/pakistan/pak_punjab.htm
- ↑ http://mastmalang.wordpress.com/2006/12/24/the-punjabi-language/