|The Ottoman Sultans|
|Osman I||1300 CE (699 AH)|
|Murad I||1359 CE (760 AH)|
|Bayezid I Yildirim||1389 CE (790 AH)|
|Mehmed I Celebi||1413 CE (815 AH)|
|Murad II||1421 CE (823 AH)|
|Mehmed II||1444 CE (847 AH)|
|Murad II||1446 CE (849 AH)|
|Mehmed II||1451 CE (854 AH)|
|Bayezid II||1481 CE (885 AH)|
|Selim I||1512 CE (917 AH)|
|Süleyman I||1521 CE (927 AH)|
|Selim II||1566 CE (973 AH)|
|Murad III||1574 CE (981 AH)|
|Mehmed III||1595 CE (1003 AH)|
|Ahmed I||1603 CE (1011 AH)|
|Mustafa I||1617 CE (1025 AH)|
|Osman II||1618 CE (1027 AH)|
|Mustafa I||1622 CE (1031 AH)|
|Murad IV||1623 CE (1032 AH)|
|Ibrahim||1640 CE (1049 AH)|
|Mehmed IV||1648 CE (1057 AH)|
|Süleyman II||1687 CE (1098 AH)|
|Ahmed II||1691 CE (1102 AH)|
|Mustafa II||1695 CE (1106 AH)|
|Ahmed III||1703 CE (1114 AH)|
|Mahmud I||1730 CE (1142 AH)|
|Osman III||1754 CE (1167 AH)|
|Mustafa III||1757 CE (1170 AH)|
|Abdülhamid I||1774 CE (1187 AH)|
|Selim III||1789 CE (1203 AH)|
|Mustafa IV||1807 CE (1221 AH)|
|Mahmud II||1808 CE (1222 AH)|
|Abdülmecit I||1839 CE (1254 AH)|
|Abdülaziz||1861 CE (1277 AH)|
|Abdülhamid II||1876 CE (1292 AH)|
|Mehmed V||1909 CE (1326 AH)|
|Mehmed VI||1918 CE (1336 AH)|
|Abdülmecit II||1922 CE (1340 AH)|
The Ottoman Caliphate (Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانيه - Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye; literally, "The Sublime Ottoman State"), also known in the West as the Turkish Empire, existed from 1299 CE (698 AH) to 1922 CE (1340 AH). At the height of its power in the 16th century and 17th century], the tri-continental Ottoman Caliphate controlled much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar (and in 1553 CE (960 AH) the Atlantic coast of North Africa beyond Gibraltar) in the west to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf in the east, from the edge of Austria and Slovakia and the hinterland beyond Ukraine in the north to Sudan and Yemen in the south. The state was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries.
With Istanbul (the Ottoman Turkish name of old Constantinople) as its capital, it was the final great Mediterranean State and heir to the legacy of Rome and Byzantium in many ways. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Caliphate was among the most powerful states of the world, threatening the powers of eastern Europe with its steady advance through the Balkans up until 1683. Its navy was a powerful force in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and theIndian Ocean. On several occasions, the Ottoman army invaded central Europe, laying siege to Vienna in 1529 CE (935 AH) and again in 1683 CE (1094 AH) in an attempt to conquer the Habsburgs, and was finally repulsed only by coalitions of European powers on the sea and on land. It was the only Eastern power to seriously challenge the rising power of Western Europe between the 15th and 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Caliphate steadily declined during the 19th century, and met its demise at the beginning of the 20th century after its defeat in World War I in the Middle Eastern theatre with the other Central Powers. In the aftermath of the war, the Ottoman government collapsed and the victorious powers partitioned the State. Subsequent years saw the creation of new states from it's remnants; at present 39 nation-states (40 including the disputed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) have emerged from the former Ottoman territories. In Anatolia, the historical center of the state, an emergent Turkish national movement expelled invading forces during the Turkish War of Independence, which concluded with the birth of the Republic of Turkey. The new Republic declared the Sultan and his family, the Ottoman Dynasty, as persona non grata of Turkey. Fifty years later, in 1974, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted descendants of the former dynasty the right to acquire Turkish citizenship.
The history of the Ottoman Caliphate spans more than six centuries, and primary documentation of the state's relations with other powers is to be found in the archives of thirty-nine nations. Earlier historiography of the state was based largely on analysis of Ottoman military victories and defeats; current approaches take a wider perspective, the scope of which includes the social dynamics of territorial growth and dissolution, and examination of economic factors and their role in the empire's eventual stagnation and decline.
An examination of Ottoman history from a political and military viewpoint will be presented here; a socioeconomic analysis is treated in separate articles, divided between two periods, the classic period (sometimes referred to as the "era of enlargement"), and the reform period (also called "the era of Westernization").
The arpita ancestors, part of Turkic peoples, of the Ottoman Dynasty was part of the westward Turkic migrations from Central Asia that began during the 10th century. Seljuk Turks settled in Persia during this period. The Seljuq dynasty began to push west into Armenia and Anatolia at the beginning of the 11th century. These movements brought them into conflict with the Byzantine Empire, which had been the preeminent political power in the eastern Mediterranean since the Roman era, but had by the 11th century begun a long decline.
Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate of the Seljuk Turks become the permanent foothold in Anatolia which was established a after a historic victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 CE (463 AH). Under the suzerainty of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, the Kai tribe of Oğuz Turks created what eventually became known as the Ottoman Beylik in western Anatolia. The leader Ertuğrul received this land after backing the Seljuks in a losing border skirmish. The Seljuk system offered the Beylik protection from outsiders, and also allowed it to develop its own internal structure. The Kayı position on the far western fringe of the Seljuk state enabled them to build up their military power through co-operation with other nations living in western Anatolia, many of whom were Christian.
Ottoman Beylik] passed over to another stage, Anatolian Turkish Beyliks, with the demise of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. Following the Mongol invasion of Anatolia in the 13th century, the sultanate collapsed and its territory was divided among a number of Turkish principalities known as Beylik. it became vassals of the Il Khanate of the Mongols.
The name Ottoman derives from Osman I , son of Ertuğrul, who became the first Bey when he declared the independence of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1299 CE (698 AH). While the other Turkish Beyliks were preoccupied with internal conflicts, Osman was able to extend the frontiers of Ottoman settlement towards the edge of the Byzantine Empire. He moved the Ottoman capital to Bursa, and shaped the early political development of the nation. Given the nickname "Kara" for his courage, Osman I was admired as a strong and dynamic ruler long after his death, as evident in the centuries-old Turkish phrase, "May he be as good as Osman." His reputation has also been burnished by the medieval Turkish story known as "Osman's Dream", a foundation myth in which the young Osman was inspired to conquest by a prescient vision of empire.
This period saw the creation of a formal Ottoman government whose institutions would remain largely unchanged for almost four centuries. In contrast to many contemporary states, the Ottoman bureaucracy tried to avoid military rule. The government also utilized the legal entity known as the millet, under which religious and ethnic minorities were able to manage their own affairs with substantial independence from central control.
In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. After defeat in Battle of Plocnik, the Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovo effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, and paved the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. The Ottomans needed almost 100 years to defeat Serbia, which would finally fall in 1459 CE (863 AH). With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective. The city was eventually taken during the rule of Mehmed II, who was only 12 years old when he became sultan for the first time. Mehmed II reorganized the structure of both the state and the military, and demonstrated his military prowess by capturing Constantinople on 29th May 1453 (11th Jumada al-Ula 857). This event marked the final defeat and collapse of the Byzantine state, and the city became the new capital of the Ottoman domains.
Following the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 CE (856 AH), the Ottoman Caliphate entered a long period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. The state prospered under the rule of a series of committed and effecitve sultans, culminating in the rule of Süleyman I (the Magnificent). Conquests on land were driven by the discipline and innovation of the Turkish military; and on the sea, the Ottoman navy established the state as a great trading power. The state also flourished economically thanks to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia.
However, Süleyman's death in 1566 CE (973 AH) marked the beginning of an era of diminishing territorial gains. The rise of western European nations as naval powers and the development of alternative sea routes from Europe to Asia and the New World damaged the Ottoman economy. The effective military and bureaucratic structures of the previous century also came under strain during a protracted period of misrule by weak Sultans. But in spite of these difficulties, the state remained a major expansionist power until the Battle of Vienna in 1683 CE (1094 AH), the first major Ottoman defeat on European soil.
Expansion and apogee (1453–1566)
Under Selim and Süleyman, the state became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea. The exploits of the Ottoman admiral Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, who commanded the Turkish navy during Süleyman's reign, included a number of impressive military victories. Among these were the conquest of Tunis and Algeria from Spain; the evacuation of Muslims and Jews from Spain to the safety of Ottoman lands (particularly Salonica, Cyprus, and Constantinople) during the Spanish Inquisition; and the capture of Nice from the Roman Empire in 1543 CE (949 AH). This last conquest occurred on behalf of France as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and those of Barbarossa. France and the Ottoman Caliphate, united by mutual opposition to Hapsburg rule in southern and central Europe, became strong allies during this period. The alliance was economic as well as military, as the sultans granted France the right of trade within the state without levy of taxation. In fact, the Ottoman Caliphate was by this time a significant and accepted part of the European political sphere, and entered into a military alliance with France, England and Holland against Habsburg Spain, Italy and Habsburg Austria.
As the 16th century progressed, Ottoman naval superiority was challenged by the upstart sea powers of western Europe, particularly Portugal, in the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean and the Spice Islands. With the Ottomans blockading sea-lanes to the East and South, the European powers were driven to find another way to the ancient Silk and Spice routes, now under absolute Ottoman control. On land, the state was preoccupied by military campaigns in Austria-Hungary and Persia, two widely-separated theaters of war. The strain of these conflicts on the state's resources, and the logistics of maintaining lines of supply and communication across such vast distances, ultimately rendered its sea efforts unsustainable and unsuccessful. Despite the Ottomans' strategic vision and partial success in global campaigning, the overriding military need for defense on the western and eastern frontiers of the state eventually made effective long-term engagement elsewhere impossible.
The period of the Ottoman Caliphate 's decline was characterised by the reorganization and transformation of most of the state's structures in an attempt to bolster the state against increasingly powerful rivals.
The Tanzimat period lasted from 1839 to 1876. During this period, many significant changes were implemented: a fairly modern conscripted army was organized; the banking system was reformed; and the guilds were replaced with modern factories. Economically, the state had difficulty in repaying its loans to European banks; at the same time, it faced military challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation: Egypt, for instance, was occupied by the French in 1798, while Cyprus was loaned to the British in 1878 in exchange of Britain's favours at the Congress of Berlin following the defeat of the Ottoman Caliphate at the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. In a significant shift in military and diplomatic policy, the state ceased to enter conflicts on its own and began to forge alliances with European countries. There were a series of such alliances with France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Russia. As an example, in the Crimean War the Ottomans united with the British, French, and others against Russia.
The Ottoman Caliphate took part in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, under the terms of the Ottoman-German Alliance. The Ottomans managed to win important victories in the early years of the war, particularly at the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut; but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians. The Russian Revolution of 1917 gave the Ottomans the opportunity to regain lost ground and Ottoman forces managed to take Azerbaijan in the final stages of the war, but the State was forced to cede these gains at the end of World War I. A significant event in this conflict was the creation of an Armenian resistance movement in the province of Van. The core Armenian resistance group formed an independent provisional government in May 1915, prompting the Ottoman government to accuse the Armenians of being in collaboration with the invading Russian forces in eastern Anatolia, against their native state. The Armenian militia and Armenian volunteer units were also part of this nationalist movement. At the end of 1917 the Armenian Revolutionary Federation formed the Democratic Republic of Armenia. The eventual Ottoman defeat came from a combination of coordinated attacks on strategic targets by British forces commanded by Edmund Allenby and the Arab Revolt of 1916-1918.
During the first World War, the Ottoman government also faced difficulties on the home front. There were isolated Armenian rebellions in eastern Anatolia that led to the April 24 circular and then the Tehcir Law deportations between June 1 1915 and February 8 1916. An estimated 1.5 million ethnic Armenians died during this period, which most academics refer to as the Armenian Genocide. Typically this is considered to be the first genocide of the 20th century and the second most studied case of genocide, after the Holocaust. Turkish authorities, however, do not believe the term genocide applies. The Turkish government does not believe that the Tehcir Law was the main contribution to Armenian deaths during the first World War. The claim that Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa or the Special Organization committed an organized crime against the Armenian people is also disputed, though the poor conditions of the Armenians (and other Christians in general) as well as some Muslims were not. In addition to any deliberate policy, fighting between Kurds and Armenians along with the Caucasus Campaign of the World War caused trouble for both the Armenian and Muslim populations of the region. The Turkish rejection of the genocide is widely viewed by western scholars as historical revisionism and is often compared to Holocaust denial. See the main Armenian Genocide article for more information on the dispute.
Partitioning of the Ottoman Caliphate happened in the aftermath of the WWI. The initial ceasefire agreement was the Armistice of Mudros; under the terms of the subsequent Treaty of Sèvres, the state was to submit to a complete partition of its Middle Eastern territories under the mandates of Britain and France, cede the Turkish Mediterranean coast to Italy, the Turkish Aegean coast to Greece, cede the Turkish Straits and Sea of Marmara to the Allied powers as an international zone, and recognize a large Republic of Armenia in eastern Anatolia (in an area which was mostly inhabited by Turks and Kurds). The terms of this treaty were later superseded by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. Britain obtained virtually everything it had sought under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement it had made with France in 1916 for the partitioning of the Middle East. The other powers of the Triple Entente, however, soon became entangled in the Turkish War of Independence.
The Turkish War of Independence was a response to the actions of the victorious Allies, in particular the harsh terms of the peace settlement. Turkish nationalists organized a Turkish national movement under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk). The establishment of the Turkish national movement resulted in the creation of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi) in Ankara on 23 April 1920, which refused to recognize the Ottoman government in Istanbul and the invading forces in Turkey, raised a "people's army" and expelled the invading Greek, Italian and French forces. They took back the Turkish provinces which were given to the Republic of Armenia with the Treaty of Sèvres, and threatened the British forces controlling the Turkish Straits. Turkish revolutionaries eventually freed the Turkish Straits and Istanbul, and abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922. The last sultan, Mehmed VI Vahdettin (1918-1922), left the country on November 17, 1922, and the Republic of Turkey was officially declared with the Treaty of Lausanne on 29 October 1923. The Caliphate was constitutionally abolished several months later, on 3 March 1924. the Sultan and his family were declared persona non grata of Turkey and exiled. Fifty years later, in 1974, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted descendants of the former dynasty the right to acquire Turkish citizenship. Ertuğrul Osman V.
The economic structure of the State was defined by its geopolitical structure. The Ottoman Caliphate stood between the West and the East, thus blocking the land route eastward and forcing Spanish and Portuguese navigators to set sail in search of a new route to the Orient. The state controlled the spice route that Marco Polo once used. When Christopher Columbus first journeyed to America in 1492, the Ottoman Caliphate was at its zenith; an economic power which extended over three continents. Modern Ottoman studies think that the change in relations between the Ottomans and central Europe was caused by the opening of the new sea routes. It is possible to see the decline in significance of the land routes to the East (as Western Europe opened the ocean routes that bypassed the Middle East and Mediterranean) as parallelling the decline of the Ottoman Caliphate itself.
In diplomatic circles, the state was often referred to as the "Sublime Porte", a literal translation of the Ottoman Turkish Bâb-ı Âlî, which was the only gate of the imperial Topkapı Palace that was open to foreigners, and was where the sultan greeted ambassadors.
Unlike many states, the Ottoman Caliphate was happy to use the talents of Greeks (and other Christians), Muslims and Jews, in revolutionizing its administrative system. The rapidly expanding state utilized loyal, skilled subjects to manage the state, whether Phanariot Greeks, Armenians, Serbs, Bosniaks, Hungarians or others. This eclectic administration was apparent even in the diplomatic correspondence of the state, which was initially undertaken in the Greek language to the west, using the Greek subjects. Like the Byzantines before them, the Ottomans practiced a system in which the state had control over the clergy. The nomadic Turkic forms of land tenure were largely retained —with a number of unique adjustments— in the Ottoman period. Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran continued to be important in Ottoman administrative circles. In the Ottoman judiciary, for example, the courts were run by Kadı, i.e. religious judges appointed by the sultan who exercised direct control over members of the religious establishment. Ultimately, the Ottoman administrative system was a blend of influences derived from the Turks, the Byzantines, and the Islamic world.
The Ottomans were primarily administrators and not producers, in the sense that the state did not employ a program of economic exploitation (as did the colonial empires of the modern European states). Its economic outlook (fiscalism) stressed abundance and regulated prices within the marketplace to ensure social stability, and the state never developed a Western mercantile outlook of maximum production, leaving commerce very largely in the hands of the non-Muslim population. According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders within the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.
House of Osman
Template:Further The Ottoman sultan, also known as the pâdişâh (or "lord of kings"), served as the state's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control.
Throughout Ottoman history, however —despite the supreme de jure authority of the sultans and the occasional exercise of de facto authority by Grand Viziers— there were many instances in which local governors acted independently, and even in opposition to the ruler. On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. New sultans were always chosen from among the sons of the previous sultan, but there was a strong educational system in place that was geared towards eliminating the unfit and establishing support amongst the ruling elite for the son before he was actually crowned. There were only two attempts in the whole of Ottoman history to unseat the ruling Osmanlı dynasty, both failures, which is suggestive of a political system which for an extended period was able to manage its revolutions without unnecessary instability.
The Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. It was ruled by the Valide Sultan (also known as the Baş Kadın, or "Chief Lady"), mother of the reigning sultan, who held supreme power over the Harem and thus a powerful position in the court. On occasion, the Valide Sultan would become involved in state politics and through her influence could diminish the power and position of the sultan. For a period of time beginning in the 16th century and extending into the 17th, the women of the Harem effectively controlled the state in what was termed the "Sultanate of Women" (Kadınlar Saltanatı).
The harem had its own internal organization and order of formulating policies. Beneath the Valide Sultan in the hierarchy was the Haseki Sultan, the mother of the sultan's first-born son, who had the best chance of becoming the next Valide Sultan. The sultan also had four other official wives, who were each called Haseki Kadın. Next in rank below the sultan's wives were his eight favourite concubines (ikbâls or hâs odalıks), and then the other concubines whom the sultan favoured and who were termed gözde. Next in rank were the concubines of other court officials. Pupils (acemî) and novices (câriye or şâhgird) were younger women who were either waiting to be married off to someone or who had not yet graduated out of the Harem School.
The palace schools were where young male Christian slaves (devşirme), taken as tribute from conquered Christian lands, were trained. There were palace schools in the old palace in Edirne, one in the Galata Palace north of the Istanbul's Golden Horn, and one in Ibrahim Pasha Palace in the Hippodrome area of Istanbul. The boys would graduate from these schools after seven years, and were then ready to become servants to the sultan or other notables, to serve in the Six Divisions of Cavalry, or to serve as Janissaries. Some of the most talented devşirme would come to Topkapı Palace, where they were trained for high positions within the Ottoman court or military.
The Divan (Council)
Template:Further Though the sultan was the supreme monarch, he had a number of advisors and ministers. The most powerful of these were the viziers of the Divan, led by the Grand Vizier. The Divan was a council where the viziers met and debated the politics of the state. It was the Grand Vizier's duty to inform the sultan of the opinion of the divan. The sultan often took his viziers' advice, but he by no means had to obey the Divan. The Divan consisted of three viziers in the 14th century; by the 17th century, the number had grown to eleven, four of whom served as Viziers of the Dome (the most important ministers after the Grand Vizier).
Though the state apparatus of the Ottoman Caliphate underwent many reforms during its long history, a number of its basic structures remained essentially the same. Chief among these was the primacy of the sultan. Despite important decisions usually being made by the Divan, ultimate authority always rested with the sultan.
The Divan, in the years when the Ottoman Caliphate was still a Beylik, was composed of the elders of the tribe. Its composition was later modified to include military officers and local elites (such as religious and political advisors). These individuals became known as viziers. Later still, beginning in the year 1320, a Grand Vizier (or Sadrazam) was appointed in order to assume certain of the sultan's responsibilities. The Sublime Porte, which became synonymous with the Ottoman government, was in fact the gate to the Grand Vizier's headquarters, and the place where the sultan formally greeted foreign ambassadors. At times throughout Ottoman history, the authority of the Grand Vizier was to equal (and on some occasions even surpass) that of the sultan.
After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Ottoman Caliphate became a constitutional monarchy without executive powers, and a parliament was formed, with representatives chosen from the provinces.
Template:Seealso Ethnic groups with their own languages (e.g. Greeks, Jews-who often spoke Ladino, etc.) continued to speak them within their families and neighborhoods. In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages, some Ottoman or Persian if they were educated, and some Arabic if they were Muslim. In the last two centuries, French and English emerged as popular languages. The elite learned French at school, and used European products as a fashion statement. The use of Turkish grew steadily under the Ottomans but they were still interested in their two other official languages so they kept them with a new limited usage: Persian for literature and Arabic solely for religious rites. Many famous Persian poets emerged at this time.
Ottoman Turkish was a variety of Turkish, highly influenced by Persian and Arabic. Ottomans had three influential languages; Turkish, Persian, Arabic but they did not have a parallel status. Throughout the vast Ottoman bureaucracy and, in particularly, within the Ottoman court in later times, a version of Turkish was spoken, albeit with a vast mixture of both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. If the basic grammar was still largely Turkish, the inclusion of virtually any word in Arabic or Persian in Ottoman made it a language which was essentially incomprehensible to any Ottoman subject who had not mastered Arabic, Persian or both. The two varieties of the language became so differentiated that ordinary people had to hire special "request-writers" (arzıhâlcis) in order to be able to communicate with the government.
When one talks of Ottoman cuisine, one refers to the cuisine of the Capital - Istanbul, and the regional capital cities, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that all the populations enjoyed. This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the state to create and experiment with different ingredients. The creations of the Ottoman Palace's kitchens filtered to the population, for instance through Ramadan events, and through the cooking at Yalis of Pashas, and from here on spread to the rest of the population.
The court (Topkapı)
See also: Seraglio.
The provincial capitals
Apart from the Ottoman court, there were also large metropolitan centers where the Ottoman influence expressed itself with a diversity similar to metropolises of today: Sarajevo, Skopje, Thessaloniki, Dimashq, Baghdad, Beirut, Jerusalem, Makkah were other cities that had their own examples of Ottoman diversity, with their own small versions of Provincial Administration replicating the culture of the Ottoman court locally.
State and Religion
The Ottoman Caliphate was tolerant towards its non-Muslim subjects as per the Quranic injunctions
References and further reading
- Cleveland, William L. "The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis" in A History of the Modern Middle East. Westview Press, 2004. pp. 37–56. ISBN 0-8133-4048-9.
- Creasy, Sir Edward Shepherd. History of the Ottoman Turks: From the beginning of their empire to the present time. R. Bentley and Son, 1877.
- Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. John Murray, 2005. ISBN 0-7195-5513-2.
- Guilmartin, John F., Jr. "Ideology and Conflict: The Wars of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1606", Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 18, No. 4. (Spring, 1988), pp. 721–747.
- Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-61386-4.
- Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-521-25249-0.
- Lybyer, Albert Howe. The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent. AMS Press, 1978. ISBN 0-404-14681-3.
- Mansel, Philip. Istanbul: City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924. Gardners Books, 1997. ISBN 0-14-026246-6.
- McCarthy, Justin. The Ottoman Peoples and the End of Empire. Hodder Arnold, 2001. ISBN 0-340-70657-0.
- Necipoğlu, Gülru. Architecture, Ceremonial, and Power: The Topkapi Palace in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-14050-0.
- Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-54782-2.
- ↑ Other names of the Caliphate: “Âl-i Osman”; “Devlet-i Âliye”, “Devlet-i Ebed-Müddet”, “Memâlik-i Mahrûse” (The Well-Protected Domains), “Memâlik-i Mahrûse-i Osmanî”
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