Hui

From Mw

Jump to: navigation, search
Hui
(回族)
HuiChineseMuslim3.jpg
Total population 9.8 million[1] 100 million [2]
Regions with significant populations China
Language Mandarin
Religion Islam[[1]]


According to Bai Shouyi the Hui are decendents from the Muslim trading communites during the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty. The first known instance of the use of HuiHui is in the Song Dynasty text Mengxi bita. The Author Shen kuo records battle verses sung by Song soldiers at Yan'an a military post adjacent to the sourther border of the Buddhist Tangut kingdom on XiXia "Flag bearers form a sea of polished silk brocade, Armoured troops charge downhil to batlle the huihui".

Contents

Hui Definition

The term Hui was defined under the Communists in 1930 to inidcate ethinic chinese Muslims. Their catogorisation as Hui people was a response to Japenese overtures to the Muslim and Mongolian people in China to illicit an alliance or at the very least neutrality . The Communists released a document callled "Manifesto of the Chinese Central Soviet to the Hui people". The document granted them political autonomy and religious freedom and the right to bear arms [3] . Later in 1941 the Communist Party clarified the term Hui as follows . The Hui or Huihui constitue an ethnic group associated with, but not defined by, the islamic religion and they are decended primarily from Muslims who migrated to China during the Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368), as distinct from the Uyghur and other Turkic speaking ethnic groups in Xinjiang[4]. The Hui where recognised as part of 5 ethnic groups that sybolise the 5 stars on the Chinese Flag. They include Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans and the Han Chinese.

However terms such as Hui Hui were known at a much earlier date.

Ethnicity

Currently in China those who categorise themselves as Hui do so , based on an actual or perceived lineage from the early Arab, Persian and Turkish people who entered China during the Tang Dynasty. Although the categorisation of Hui is closely linked to Islam many Hui consider themselves Hui based on lineage only. This is true of many of the Hui families in South China, and the large number of Hui who fled to Taiwan under Chiang Kai-Shek

Hui Terms

Given the various facets of Hui identification, such as religion and ancestory, there exists various terms that have been used to address these differences. So Yislan Jiao is also used for Islam, and Hui Jiao is used for religion. A Hui min (Hui Person) removes the religious element, as well as Hui jiao tu for the religion, and Hui minzu for the Hui ethnic group. in addition in Soviet Central Asia, the Hui are known as Dungan, and in Yunnan Panthay.

Main article: Islam in Taiwan
Main article: Quanzhou

Hui Demographics

AutonomousRegions.png

Although Hui are found in every major Chinese City, various concentrations of Hui people has led to the creation of various autonomous administration units within China.

Prominent Hui

Part of a Category:Islam in China of articles on

Islam

Islam in China

Islamic Architecture in China

Chinese Mosques and Muslim Architects

Major figures

Zheng HeHaji NoorMa BufangPu Shougeng Jamal ud-Din

Muslim People in China

HuiSalarUygursKazakhsKirgiz TartarsAryan TajkisUzbeksDongxiang

Muslim Wushu Masters

Wang Zi PingMa MentaYang Wan LuChamirChang Yuchun Hu DahaiMu yingLan YuWu ZhongZhang Shao Fu

Islamic Dyansties in China

Sultanate of Xeng Hong
Yunnan SultanateFive Ma
Sultanate of KweichowXinjiang Sultanate

Islamic Cities/Regions in China

NingxiaQuanzhou
TongxinHunanLinxia

History of Islam in China

Ming DynastyYuan DynastyQing DynastyTang DynastyModern HistoryTimeline of Islam in China

Sub Categories of Hui

  • Chantou Hui (turbaned Hui)
  • Dongxiang Hui
  • Salar Hui
  • Han Hui - those who are more closely linked to Han Culture.
  • Zang Hui - Tibetan Hui
  • Meng Hui - Mongolian Hui - Alshan district - inner Mongolia
  • Dai Hui- in Xishuangbana Yunnan
  • Bai Hui - in Eryuan county Yunnan

South China Hui Communities

Yunnan Hui

After the fall of the Dali Sultanate in Yunnan many Hui fled north, they gradually assimilated to Bai culture. However they still maintain the legend that tye are descended from the Black Cloth, early Turkish-speaking Muslims who settled there under the Tany Dynasty.

See Also

References

Notes

  1. offical (2001 census)
  2. unoffical
  3. "Zhonghua Suwei'ai Zhongyang Zhengfu dui Huizu renmin de xuanyan" (Manifesto of the Chinese Central Soviet to the Hui people [Huizu renmin]), 1936/8/1.
  4. Bai Shouyi, Zhongguo Huihui minzu shi (A history of the Huihui nationality in China), Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2003, pp.36-44
Personal tools